Lotterer, who won the prestigious 24 hour race in 2011, 2012 and 2014, will replace Kamui Kobayashi at the squad for the race at Spa Francorchamps.
"I am delighted to be given the opportunity to take part in a Formula 1 race weekend – I want to thank Caterham F1 Team for this chance," said Lotterer.
"I'm ready for this challenge and I cannot wait to jump in the car and make the most out of the weekend ahead. I will need to get settled and used to the car quickly, as the team has worked on a number of updates and we will need to have as much time as possible out on track to optimise the car's performance.
"I really enjoy racing at the legendary circuit of Spa-Francorchamps, it's one of my favourite tracks and it's very close to where I grew up, so this makes the weekend even more special and one to remember."