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 Post subject: Kinetic Energy Recovery System - KERS
PostPosted: 06 Aug 2008, 15:55  
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sanredrose wrote:
Can some explain what is KERS system ? Why some teams are opposed against bringing it in ??

This is a special solution using mechanical flywheel techonolgy developed by three companies:

“The mechanical KERS system utilises flywheel technology developed by Flybrid Systems to recover and store a moving vehicle’s kinetic energy which is otherwise wasted when the vehicle is decelerated. The energy is received from the driveline through the Torotrak CVT, engineered and supplied by Xtrac, as the vehicle decelerates, and is subsequently released back into the driveline, again through the CVT, as the vehicle accelerates. The FIA has defined the amount of energy recovery for the 2009 season as 400kJ per lap giving the driver an extra 80hp over a period of 6.67 seconds.

“Compared to the alternative of electrical-battery systems, the mechanical KERS system provides a significantly more compact, efficient, lighter and environmentally-friendly solution.

“The components within each variator include an input disc and an opposing output disc. Each disc is formed so that the gap created between the discs is ‘doughnut’ shaped; that is, the toroidal surfaces on each disc form the toroidal cavity.

“Two or three rollers are located inside each toroidal cavity and are positioned so that the outer edge of each roller is in contact with the toroidal surfaces of the input disc and output disc.

“As the input disc rotates, power is transferred via the rollers to the output disc, which rotates in the opposite direction to the input disc.

“The angle of the roller determines the ratio of the Variator and therefore a change in the angle of the roller results in a change in the ratio. So, with the roller at a small radius (near the centre) on the input disc and at a large radius (near the edge) on the output disc the Variator produces a ‘low’ ratio. Moving the roller across the discs to a large radius at the input disc and corresponding low radius at the output produces the ‘high’ ratio and provides the full ratio sweep in a smooth, continuous manner.

“The transfer of power through the contacting surfaces of the discs and rollers takes place via a microscopic film of specially developed long-molecule traction fluid. This fluid separates the rolling surfaces of the discs and rollers at their contact points.

“The input and output discs are clamped together within each variator unit. The traction fluid in the contact points between the discs and rollers become highly viscous under this clamping pressure, increasing its ’stickiness’ and creating an efficient mechanism for transferring power between the rotating discs and rollers.”

sanredrose wrote:
Why some teams are opposed against bringing it in ??

Some road cars already use this technology so BMW and Honda can maximize the advantage of KERS system. I don't think it's a safety or cost issue as opposing teams claim. It is the performance gain they fear about.

You can also read this article from Wikipedia:

Quote:
Max Mosley of the FIA has announced that all cars will become hybrid by 2013, along with other changes to the vehicles. The governing body of international motor sport, the FIA, has allowed the use of 60 kW "Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems" (KERS), in the regulations for the 2009 Formula One season. BMW and Honda are testing it.

The hybrid system that will be implemented in Formula 1 is known as KERS, which stands for Kinetic Energy Recovery System. The maximum power that can be released from such a system is restricted to 60 kW by the FIA. Energy can either be stored as mechanical energy (as in a flywheel) or can be stored as electrical energy (as in a battery or supercapacitor).

The first of these systems to be revealed was the Flybrid which appeared in an article in Racecar Engineering magazine.

The Flybrid F1 KERS System weighs 24 kg and has an energy capacity of 400 kJ after allowing for internal losses. A maximum power boost of 60 kW (81.6 PS) for 6.67 sec is available. The 20-cm diameter flywheel weighs 5.0 kg and revolves at up to 64,500 rpm. Maximum torque is 18 nm. The system occupies a volume of 13 liters.

Two minor incidents involved testing the KERS system in 2008 have been reported. The first occurred when the Red Bull Racing team tested their KERS battery for the first time in July, it malfunctioned and caused a fire scare, resulting in the team's factory being evacuated. The second was less than a week later when a BMW Sauber mechanic was given an electric shock when he touched Christian Klien's KERS-equipped car during a test at the Jerez circuit.

Automobile Club de l'Ouest, the organizer behind the annual 24 Hours of Le Mans event and the Le Mans Series is currently "studying specific rules for LMP1 which will be equipped with a kinetic energy recovery system."

Toyota has used a supercapacitor for regeneration on Supra HV-R hybrid race car that won the 24 Hours of Tokachi race in July 2007.


//////////////////

Some useful links about KERS:
1. Kinetic energy storage by a flywheel --> Lecture Notes
2. From FIA 2009 Sporting Regulations:
    5.2.1 The use of any device, other than the 2.4 litre, four stroke engine described in 5.1 above and one KERS, to power the car, is not permitted.
    5.2.2 With the exception of one fully charged KERS, the total amount of recoverable energy stored on the car must not exceed 300kJ. Any which may be recovered at a rate greater than 2kW must not exceed 20kJ.
    5.2.3 The maximum power, in or out, of any KERS must not exceed 60kW.
    Energy released from the KERS may not exceed 400kJ in any one lap.
    Measurements will be taken at the connection to the rear wheel drivetrain.
    5.2.4 The amount of stored energy in any KERS may not be increased whilst the car is stationary during a race pit stop.
    Release of power from any such system must remain under the complete control of the driver at all times the car is on the track.
    [...]
    9.9.1 The KERS must connect at any point in the rear wheel drivetrain before the differential. If connected between the differential and wheel the torque applied by the KERS to each wheel must be the same.

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 Post subject: Re: Kinetic Energy Recovery System - KERS
PostPosted: 06 Aug 2008, 16:13  
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:blink: ... :blink: ... in plain english please :nosweat: :nosweat:

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 Post subject: Re: Kinetic Energy Recovery System - KERS
PostPosted: 06 Aug 2008, 16:21  
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megasyxx wrote:
:blink: ... :blink: ... in plain english please :nosweat: :nosweat:

When the car deccelerates, it creates energy as heat. This energy is a wasted energy which is converted from kinetic energy to heat. Theoretically useless. But, through this system, the dissipated heat will be -let's say- captured and re-converted to kinetic energy and added into drive shaft again. So, with the same amount of fuel, you can obtain much more energy, which is more horse power, which is more speed :)

You can do it by either mechanically by a flywheel or electrically by a battery system. Don't need to go into details. It's a very environmental friendly solution. I hope it will be governed and operated successfuly.

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 Post subject: Re: Kinetic Energy Recovery System - KERS
PostPosted: 06 Aug 2008, 18:53  
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I´m looking forward to the introduction of KERS and how it will possobly change the balance of power in F1 a bit. But I think 81 horsepower is way to little to massively change overtaking in F1. It must at least be twice as much to make a real difference and allow overtaking on short straights like Hungary or Turkey. Because 700 horsepower vs 781 horsepower won´t make that much difference on the track.

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 Post subject: Re: Kinetic Energy Recovery System - KERS
PostPosted: 06 Aug 2008, 21:45  
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The teams are don't have to use the KERS-system, they can make their own choice, weither you want to use it or not. So I don't think all the teams will be at the start of the new GP season with the KERS-system on their cars. The all say: If it's not faster then the car we're using now, we are not gonna use it..

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 Post subject: Re: Kinetic Energy Recovery System - KERS
PostPosted: 07 Aug 2008, 00:46  
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This article has a very good explanation of Flybird Systems KERS as well as the company itself:

http://www.racecar-engineering.com/arti ... ybrid.html

It's funny how Renault led calls for a delay in KERS while it's being developed by laid off Renault employees. I actually thought that Renault would have KERS in the bag because of who are developing it when I first read the article. I guess they burned that bridge...
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 Post subject: Re: Kinetic Energy Recovery System - KERS
PostPosted: 07 Aug 2008, 07:22  
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Flywheel highlight: Hypervideo showing construction and operation of four cylinder internal combustion engine (courtesy of Ford Motor Company)



Links:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flywheel
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flywheel_energy_storage

Edit: Video checked and is working properly for me.

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 Post subject: Re: Kinetic Energy Recovery System - KERS
PostPosted: 07 Aug 2008, 08:14  
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one day ross brawn said when he was with ferrari"the engeneers who don't progress DIE".

Warning: Off topic & irrelevant post- ZacK.
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 Post subject: Re: Kinetic Energy Recovery System - KERS
PostPosted: 07 Aug 2008, 12:12  
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[s]@zack

The video won't play.[/s]

It's interesting though to read that FES which NASA uses runs at 50000 rpm, while KERS runs at over 64000. Also KERS runs in a vacum which eliminates all friction. Seems to me that the weak point could be the hermetic shaft seal. Blow the seal and BOOM!

EDIT:

Must have been my morning internet. I can play the video now... :thumbsup:


Last edited by fclen on 07 Aug 2008, 15:00, edited 1 time in total.
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 Post subject: Re: Kinetic Energy Recovery System - KERS
PostPosted: 07 Aug 2008, 13:32  
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Interesting read.

Any flywheel on any car acts as an energy storage. On the regular cars, it acts as a storage to keep the rotation of the engine going and eventually in layman's terms it all boils down as to how easily your revs go up and down. A lighter flywheel will help rev up the engine faster, from idle, thus improving acceleration. However its stores little energy so the moment you take your foot off the throttle, the revs drop rapidly. Still it is used mostly on race cars because of the acceleration benefits and the ease of rev-matching.

Having changed from a 26 lb flywheel to one weight 14 lb on my personal turbocharged Subaru, I can attest to the benefits, but also to the decrease in fuel economy, since in city traffic I now have to be on the throttle more often.
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 Post subject: Re: Kinetic Energy Recovery System - KERS
PostPosted: 07 Aug 2008, 14:07  
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look at the video. its look spectacular. I was amazed for a while. No wonder people say inventing new things is hard.
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 Post subject: Re: Kinetic Energy Recovery System - KERS
PostPosted: 09 Aug 2008, 06:22  
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KERS:The goal is to reduce the level of greenhouse gas emissions by recovering energy wasted during braking, and is part of FIA president Max Mosley’s dream to make F1 more cost-efficient, road relevant and environmentally friendly.

The design work is being handled by transmission specialists Torotrak and Xtrac, who will be forming a partnership to develop the Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS) first proposed by Moseley last month. The KERS is basically an efficient CVT gearbox joined to a flywheel that rotates when the cars undergo braking. The stored energy can then be used to boost acceleration for overtaking and cornering, and will work like the power-boost button seen in the A1GP.

Image

Press Release..
Attachment:
Torotrak_Xtrac_CVT.pdf


Links:
http://www.torotrak.com/hybrids/
http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/hybridtech.shtml

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 Post subject: Re: Kinetic Energy Recovery System - KERS
PostPosted: 14 Aug 2008, 05:34  
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Instead of having teams design their own KERS, they should have a standard one, but NOT DESIGNED BY MCLAREN AGAIN!
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 Post subject: Re: Kinetic Energy Recovery System - KERS
PostPosted: 15 Aug 2008, 09:15  
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i think all the teams should buy KERBS from BMW

@zack
thanks it was very useful information

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 Post subject: Re: Kinetic Energy Recovery System - KERS
PostPosted: 23 Aug 2008, 01:39  
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BMW, Williams, Honda and probably McLaren are ahead in development. Ferrari and Toyota are making most noice about delay of KERS to 2010. probably coz they are late with development. I suppose Ferrari will loose the most by KERS introduction next year... but I'll leave that for another time. Everytime when rules are being changed, diff between fastest and slowest on the grid are bigger then at the times when regulations are the same - frozen. The great thing is that everyone will start from zero coz of new areodinamics, tyres and KERS. Well, great I mean it - for Honda coz they were counting on this since end of last season. Hopefully they can gain advantage from it.

Honda made it clear that they will agree to abdon KERS introduction only if they will be only team for against.

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